Internet of Vehicles – System of Systems Distributed Intelligence for Mobility Applications
Ovidiu Vermesan, Reiner John, Patrick Pype, Gerardo Daalderop, Meghashyam Ashwathnarayan, Roy Bahr, Tore Karlsen, Hans-Erik Sand
Abstract: This chapter presents the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) concept, technologies and applications used to realise intelligent functions, optimise vehicle performance, control, and decision-making for future electric, connected, autonomous, and shared (ECAS) vehicles mobility scenarios.
The concept addresses the convergence of the edge intelligence embedded in the vehicles based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies with the cooperative, collaborative intelligence distributed into the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and edge computing infrastructure federated with the hierarchical cognitive processes and analytics in physical, network, infrastructure, and data spaces. IoV integrates and links the ECAS vehicles’ domains with the intra-vehicle networks, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks, the processing and cognitive functions provided by federated platforms using the intelligent edge and cloud computing infrastructure. The cognitive transformation of vehicles and the integration of immersive technologies, i.e., virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) combined with intelligent connectivity, IoT, Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs), digital twins (DTs), data, knowledge, security/privacy requirements and learning platforms provide the technological foundation of IoV allowing for entirely new services, applications, and user experiences. The paper advances the latest architectural concepts for ECAS vehicles. It proposes an IoV 3D multi-layered architecture that combines AI, edge computing and connectivity as part of the functional layers while integrating the system properties and trustworthiness properties into the overall architecture to provide efficient new mobility applications and services. The proposed system of systems concept for IoV applications allows for distributed intelligent functions to be embedded into the edge and cloud infrastructure for ECAS vehicles to provide a computing, processing, and intelligent connectivity continuum for IoV applications and services.