Using Formal Conformance Testing to Generate Scenarios for Autonomous Vehicles
Jean-Baptiste Horel, Christian Laugier, Lina Marsso, Radu Mateescu, Lucie Muller, Anshul Paigwar, Alessandro Renzaglia, Wendelin Serwe
Abstract: Simulation, a common practice to evaluate au-tonomous vehicles, requires to specify realistic scenarios, in par-ticular critical ones, occurring rarely and potentially dangerous to reproduce on the road. Such scenarios may be either generated randomly, or specified manually. Randomly generating scenarios is easy, but their relevance might be difficult to assess. Manually specified scenarios can focus on a given feature, but their design might be difficult and time-consuming, especially to achieve satisfactory coverage. In this work, we propose an automatic approach to generate a large number of relevant critical scenarios for autonomous driving simulators. The approach is based on the generation of behavioral conformance tests from a formal model (specifying the ground truth configuration with the range of vehicle behaviors) and a test purpose (specifying the critical feature to focus on). The obtained abstract test cases cover, by construction, all possible executions exercising a given feature, and can be automatically translated into the inputs of autonomous driving simulators. We illustrate our approach by generating thousands of behavior trees for the CARLA simulator for several realistic configurations.